The personal property is the great asset of the revolution of 1789. The Declaration of the rights of man specifies that it is an inviolable and crowned right. It carries obviously in priority on the real goods. This evolution parcelled out by the play of the heritages the great properties fields of the old nobility but also the vestiges of the common property managed by the monastic orders and knights who were sold as national goods to private owners. In republican rural France each family, each child was to have a house and some fields or pastures. This evolution is far from being completed and the access to the real estate remains difficult for the most modest incomes. But to be a small holder heir to these small holdings disseminated in the fining of a commune to the liking of the marriages, exchanges of ground and especially of the division of the inheritance at the time of the death of the parents, is inevitably an aubaine neither for the small holder nor for the community: the following case can illustrate the injustices and the blocking of the initiatives citizens since generations. We will see then the uses of this real property common which were made in the past to finish on the current solutions that it will bring once given in practice.
An example of current situation:
In a corner lost a long time of mountain, a very land small holder had inherited his large parents a field close to the village. This field is very long but very narrow, it is a board as people call these grounds. The ones beside the others, it were useful for the culture of potatoes or of vegetables and they were arranged behind the houses, surrounding the village like a crown of fields longilignes. The provision of these “boards” corresponded to the use of the plow drawn by oxen or a horse. The length of the field was practical because that limited the reversal of the plow. The inhabitants went there the every day after their working day and it was their large garden. The site limited the distances to be gone and the proximity of the houses was to draw aside the savage animals: roe-deer, wild rabbits even hinds and stag and especially wild boars. A second crown of grounds presented the orchards: the grounds are broader so that the fruit trees can grow and the fruits not to fall on the field of the neighbor. To beyond and to the forest the meadows and pastures much larger extend to accommodate many animals and herds.
Once these given up cultures, all these fields became waste lands. When households wanted to build at the village, the most adapted grounds were the meadows in front of the forest. The first constructions were done on beautiful sunny slopes and with the pleasant sight. Connection with water supply and the electricity network of the village was initially paid by the town hall since they are children of city council men who were installed thus on grounds coming from their families. Once this development installed, other constructions took seat. After construction on near, it was the turn of the orchards: their width allows the construction of a smaller house but it is to better build two houses one behind the other, which poses problems of proximity and cohabitation with the neighbors. Lastly, once all these built grounds, remain the boards, the old fields which are now waste lands almost in the middle of the new village. The adjustment of fining by the preceding generations corresponded to an obvious logic. New constructions correspond to any logic of regional planning: it is a mitage of the rural areas guided by the availability of the grounds and their practical character to build a building there. The unit corresponds today to houses placed anyhow, often the ones on the others with very narrow access roads which cannot let pass from the fire engines and even of the ambulances because space to operate lack: there is just the place for a small car to circulate to its garage or its private carpark. When the summer, each one wants to settle apart from the house, the disorders of vicinity are recurring and the noise becomes permanent unless more being obstructed and to make as if the neighbors did not exist, the whole in a culture with the individualistic value become exaggerated: one telephones on its terrace, the other brings together his/her friends around a barbecue, the children are chamaillent around the swing or of the inflatable swimming pool, the dogs quarrel behind the fences, the other leads to bottom the music or television, another repairs the engine of its car… From where sales and frequent resales of these houses in the hope to find better elsewhere with the money of the sale of this property so that envisaged.
This development of the village is today more one failure that a success, especially that the houses most badly placed find little of amateur if not the modest families which do not have a budget to better buy: a phenomenon of loss in value is set up because these owners can hardly refund the real loan and do not have money to maintain their house. At the end of 10 years, these houses take piteous form whereas others are very well maintained but can undergo a certain rebate because of a vicinity little engaging. What does nothing but increase with medium term the problems of vicinity in these heteroclite real sets. Finally, the richest households move for districts more residential and quiet and the old village are found with districts with the behaviors similar to those of the most agitated suburbs: the problem of the suburbs moved in the countryside and the former inhabitants of the village start to vote in mass for the parties extremists of right-hand side in order to claim more safety, even the departures from “abroad” who are not integrated in the old village. The horror reaches its roof when under the porch of the church, of the groups are formed the evening and that during the night of the traffics of drug are held with many cars which go and come, the whole in a noise which represents a true provocation for the inhabitants who want to sleep. This phenomenon has largely spread for twenty years in centers of distant population from 30 to 60 kms of a city, the new ones come continuing to work downtown whereas their children are often with unemployment and trail at the village, situation incomprehensible for the villagers accustomed to occupy their children in the fields, the orchards if not to make wood in the forest to heat itself the winter.
Taken individually, a board does not have any commercial value because no house can be built above. The only solution to build is to buy several fields but then behind the house, it y will have a ground very long and narrow which will not be used for large thing, it should be sold this ground so that another household also builds a house but there is the problem of the access path and the development of this part of the ground. In short, we returned to the case of the orchards. That remains very complicated and not practices whole. The best solution is to buy all the grounds between two roads, that is to say more than one hectare with the dozen of owners and to build above a whole real unit or several residences but only a promoter can engage in such a project.
Still it is necessary that this promoter manages to contact all the owners and to decide them to sell. The grounds having been inherited or transmitted for an unimportant value and the owners not knowing how to get rid of these grounds, the promoter can be tempted to propose a weak price, largely lower than the price of the constructible grounds in the area. If each owner remains isolated and wants to separate at this price there from an useless ground in his inheritance, the first salesmen condemn actually the others to sell off also their grounds especially if the promoter has already the close grounds, which then makes yours unsaleable to someone else. The second possibility consists in for the owners joining to sell in block their ground. They can at least hope to obtain the average price of the grounds to be built which exists in their area. They will have then to settle the question of the betterment tax. At the end of fifteen years, the owner is exempted to pay this imposition. During the first 5 years following the entry in possession of the good, the owner who sells it by carrying out one more been worth must pay a tax which amounts to 26% the most been worth of calculated by withdrawing selling price the value of acquisition of the good. At the end of ten years, the tax rate is still 13%. For the reform of 2004, it was necessary to wait 22 years not to more have to pay this tax.
The majority of the owners of grounds laid out well sell without too much appreciation but they paid inheritancees tax death on these grounds at the time of the heritages while having estimated with the monetary value their grounds. The small holder who inherits “a board” which is not worth anything any more since it any more is not cultivated and who sells in group with the average price of the ground practiced in the area will carry out strong betterment tax on surfaces largely lower than 10 ares and the amount of the tax will be disproportionate for this modest selling price. At the time of the division, these grounds were estimated for their real individual value: i.e. for the lowest value and symbolic system. For a ground from 6 to 7 ares, the betterment tax at the end of 10 years of possession and at the rate of 13% for an employee with the SMIC can account for 4 to 6 months of take-home pay whereas the sale of this ground represents a unique opportunity to improve the situation of this household. The situation still becomes complicated if among the owners, some have more than fifteen years of possession whereas others have just inherited the ground at the time of the death of a relative. The first while selling oblige in fact the others to pay this imposition whereas they could also have waited until not being subjected more to this imposition. But to wait that all the owners have 15 years of seniority is illusory: coming deaths all will turn topsy-turvy inevitably. Inequalities of situation can then ruin the sale in group of the grounds, leaving each one once more vis-a-vis the prospect having to sell off its ground but without paying tax too much.
The situation still becomes complicated notch when the promoter and his notary make sign compromises of sale without looking at this question of the capital gains tax and that then the notary applies purely and simply the taxation rules for the salesmen who do not have the fifteen years of document of title. One of the salesmen can be indignant to have only to pay this tax and to refuse to sign the sale contract if the others do not come to also take part in the payment of its imposition. There is no reason so that it “is sacrificed” on the furnace bridge tax to allow the sale of the other owners. The solution is known notaries and they put for the majority a use in force: as of the compromise of sale, the notary sends the worksheet of the tax on the most been worth so that salesman and promoter or purchaser settle this question. In theory the promoter deals with whole or part of this tax and reflects this cost in his expenses of acquisition of the grounds which it will at the proper time make profitable at the time of the sale of the building that it will have built. But if the promoter does not hold his promise and does not take any more charges part of this tax of it, the salesman can engage the contractual liability for the promoter for inexecution of the contract. He can also ask the cancellation of the contract for vice assent: the operations of the promoter are constitutive of a fraud, of a caused error. If the cancellation of the sale contract is marked a few years later, the promoter in theory must demolish the part of the building built on this ground. It is obvious that the doors are open for very hard and durable conflicts in time. If all hold word and assume their responsibilities to finish some with this kind of complicated situations, finally, these grounds in waste land in the village which extended, will become them as a whole of houses integrated in the landscape and perhaps still better integrated as of the houses built anyhow according to the limits of the grounds available.
It is obvious that if the owners ignore these grounds and do not want to make the effort sell together, that if the promoter refuses to deal with these capital gains taxes, these grounds in waste land can remain abandoned for years and years. Unless a mayor decides on an expropriation or realization of an allotment by helping these small holders to make constructible their grounds, the mayor then doing the work of a property developer. In any event, the town hall may find it beneficial to follow this real operation of near: the new residential unit built by the promoter will have a significant impact on the commune: between 30 and 50 households will come from only one blow to settle and if all have children, it will be a question of ensuring at the level of the primary school like on the level of the drinking water supply. If the promoter to reduce his investment chooses social housing helped and built more than 80 to 100 apartments for households which are given the social aid and which prefecture uses this real operation to transfer from the households coming from sensitive urban districts, the consequences on the life of the commune will immediately take very an other turning. An example of this last case is in the technopolis of Sophia-Antipolis and the real whole of Garbejaïre: envisaged for the engineers and technicians working on Sophia-Antipolis, the mayors by limiting their investments and making subsidize constructions with the social assistances supported the adjustment of families of the districts considered difficult of the ARIANE or of las Planas in Nice. The unemployeds of this district who could go to the ANPE of their district to Nice are found in the middle of a technopolis without average collective of transport to seek work whereas the engineers and technicians found themselves in apartments whose neighbors raised hens and rabbits in their bathroom and made noise every night. It was necessary to build new real sets to allow the separation of these two populations of which one did not have its place on the site of the technopolis but had been found there following the most moved politicking operations of (we will do nothing but evoke the removal of the group of harkis living at the entry of the park by Bouillides whose camping pauper could each morning and evening to question all these employees qualified on becoming it of a company, unless this camping had not become an unbearable provocation for the population of Algerian origin moved from Nice on the park.)
Through this real case of our small village of mountain, is concentrated all the current complexity of the management of the land and buildings reduced to small pieces of which the use was lost in the evolution of our company. The great properties are not parcelled out with this sign: these are blue-chip stocks that one buys and resells even quickly if the most been worth is comfortable, the amount of the tax being reflected in this high selling price. For small holders who became it by heritage, it does not go from there in the same way: the sale of a ground being used to pay the principal house or to carry out work in this one. Not to lose part of this capital by paying a tax, the absolute rule consists in selling only after one deadline 15 years and if possible the owners of the close grounds. As soon as an owner plays his personal chart by selling for example his ground at the edge of the way without joining those which have the grounds behind his and which do not have an access to the way except a right-of-way, it obliges in fact these owners to sell at cheap price their grounds with this purchaser unless refusing to only sell to annoy it. These situations show well which united effort is necessary to disregard successive heritage and taxation rule. Failing this, of the dispute can divide families between them for several generations because it is enough to an unwillingness to prevent a suitable installation of the territory of a commune, especially the goods remain in joint possession to escape the imposition. The mayors do not have the capacities to force a citizen to sell and there is no law which enables them to take into account these real projects of private initiatives: they attend impotent these quarrels of vicinity and they can only allot permits building with luckiest which succeeded in buying an about constructible ground and it does not matter its localization in fining.
We thus note that this tax measurement is not any more in phase with our ways of life. Yesterday, the real inheritance was transmitted from generation to generation and a cycle of 20 or 25 years was in the order of the things. To sell earlier indeed consisted in carrying out an operation of sale if not at the end of 25 years, when the parents died, the children did not have to pay tax. The parents after the 50 years age could transmit real goods to their 25 year old children of without having to pay this tax on the most been worth and so on. Today the lengthening of the lifespan makes that the parents die around 80 years and more whereas their children are 60 years old. If the latter want to sell the real goods received in heritage without paying tax, they will have to wait 75 years or then the heritage will be transmitted directly to the grandchildren who 35 years to 50 years will be able more to await before selling… and to be able to invest in their main home. The ideal is a couple whose man is much older than the woman (between 10 and 15 years): at the time of the death of the man, the heritage takes place and if the woman dies 15 years later, at this time there the sale of the goods will not be subjected any more to the tax because the heirs will have more than 15 years of possession that the good remained or not in joint possession. As much to transmit the good to the grandchildren while thus jumping a generation which agrees not to benefit from the inheritance bequeathed by his/her parents.
This tax measurement is particularly unjust towards the small holders who gather to sell their grounds together: this association which enables them to sell with the average price grounds of the area exposes them to a very important and excessive appreciation compared to the very small surface their grounds. To strictly apply the taxation rules in this case causes the refusal to sell before the end of the period of imposition, if not salesman and purchaser engage in a complicated contract which obliges them on a very high degree of reciprocal confidence as much as possible to eliminate the negative consequences from the strict application of the law. Considering the historical context of the family successions, it will moreover be necessary to overcome the quarrels created by the parents and who can go back to more than one century. The task is sometimes insurmountable and the grounds remain in waste land whereas it are a real advisability to arrange the village suitably.
The other aspect which interests us more relates to the consequences of this legal complexity in the regional planning. We have here one of the causes of the mitage of land space and the explanation owing to the fact that each one builds where it can find a ground to be bought, generally without any logic in the regional planning. When the mayors do not want to refuse permits building for households which move into zones with the variation of the center of the commune, constructions invade fining. The roads are not arranged as the public highways because they is too expensive for the private individuals and the vehicles of firemen cannot for example circulate like everywhere else. Connections of worn water are limited to absorbing wells or run out in the ditch at the edge of the road by empestant the district mainly as soon as the weather is hot, etc… until the moment when there are sufficient houses so that the commune does the work of equipment necessary. The pieces of grounds are not refitted to allow constructions the good place and if each one built in limit of ground to preserve a garden or parking space or quite simply to reach the back of its house, other problems of vicinity are created, until a household in A enough and sells his house which is not paid or worse, divorce to sell his property anyhow. All this is explained of course by the right of personal property: each one is free to use about it according to its liking since it pays its taxes and that it can hardly escape the tax if it needs money quickly.
To simplify the access to constructible pieces, the solution consists in building along the roads, preferably the principal road and then the village is transformed quickly into village street on 3 to 4 even 8 kms as in certain areas. When a mayor decides to put a panel limiting speed to 50 km/h even at even 30 km/h in straight line, the gendarmerie rubs the hands and the drawer case functions with wonder to puncture fines the motorists and to remove points to them on them driving license. In the same way the anarchistic installation of the territory takes various forms: a restaurant which acquired a regional fame cannot acquire an end of the field of the close peasant to transform it into carpark for its customers if this owner refuses to sell and ingénie to settle a heap of manure on the limit of the ground which is next to the restaurant. The cars of the customers pull over anywhere on the pavements and present risks of accident. The restorer, exceeded will end up leaving the commune to find goodwill located better elsewhere and the restaurant will finish in dwelling house. In short abuses the personal property or the disorders which it cause are legion and harm the common interest of a village, a district, a city.
The solution of the common property in the real field:
In our example, the association of the small holders while selling in block more than one hectare of ground will make it possible a promoter to construct a whole of residences which will be noticed in the village and that will transform waste lands into a district which will have an influence in the image of the village. This project will affect the community of the village and the impact will not be the same one if the promoter builds residences of standing or buildings bottom-of-the-range to even place to pile up a hundred households to the modest or socially assisted incomes. We are well in the presence of a project which brings together different partners and different but complementary interests. This method can avoid building anywhere and anything within the framework of a concerted policy of the development of a commune.
So that these projects are possible, it is necessary today to start by removing the bettrement tax at least within the framework of these projects: the profit for the community is not any more one re-entry of money in the cases of the state but the optimal use of land space to place suitably and without useless public expenditure good more people than in the current situation. This elimination of the tax is compensated by the realization of a joint project optimizing at the local level the use of the land resources from the point of view of one long-term development, on several generations. The comfort and the purchasing power, the environmental protection are thus optimized. Admittedly an individual owner, salesman or promoter, do not have any more any freedom to grow rich according to his desire. Though! Beyond the only selling price and whereas the imposition on the appreciation would be removed, the salesman of the ground by obtaining a lower price compared to the current situation, can find a complement of price in the common property which is created: it can be entitled to a lease with a preferential rate during a certain period for a member of his family, it can have a certain share of the selling price of the residences, amount of the rents. It can transform its selling price into social shares in the real estate company, in rights of use for other goods managed by the common property of which it forms part in the local plan. The possibilities are numerous to interest an individual owner to belong to a project of creation of a common property. We are here in the middle of the concept of common property: the step of project which uses the tools of resolution of problems and the mechanism of subsidiarity to optimize an advantageous solution with the group. It is in the development of the project that the members of the task force will define the pooling their resources, their contributions and the transformation or not of their right of personal properties into rights to use the fruits of the common property or to yield their rights of associated in the common realization to leave this community of interests.
As of today the tax authorities must recognize the utility of these sales in group of grounds. When this associations of small holders enables them not to sell off their grounds to enable them to obtain the average price of sale of a ground on the local level, there should not be appreciations: the taxability is then revised to lead to a null result between price of acquisition and selling price. If the selling price is largely higher than the average price of sale on the local level, the imposition on most been worth can be calculated compared to the average price noted by the services of the public administration and all the salesmen will take part in the payment of this tax. The revision, the actualization of a plate of imposition is an allowed practice in many cases, the tax exemption is envisaged in other cases. To adopt these approaches in this case does not require an immediate change of the law. But on the legal level, we know that the concept of common property remains always prohibited in theory in our right and our case, it acts well to consider a common property in fact because only the meeting of the grounds in a space of more than one hectare will give a higher commercial value to these small small holdings. This evolution of the position of the tax authorities represents a small step, remains to give all its place then to the joint project to transform these grounds into dwellings of life. There is a true intellectual revolution in the manner of counting the advantages and disadvantages of the installation of a territory: this calculation goes much further that current calculation from the tax authorities which compare the value of acquisition and the value of sale. The value of a ground varies according to whether the owners join or not, us has just seen it. This value varies more according to the real project which is elaborate. It is obvious today that the owners of the grounds are not entitled any more to put forward in the project of a promoter but it can be of it differently in a project worked out in an organization in network in order to build a real common property. In this case, it is not necessary that the promoter is rich to pay the price of the whole of the grounds. It is enough that experts in real construction come to join the initial association of the small holders of the grounds and that a bank lends the money necessary to the purchase of building materials. The access to real projects is much larger for the whole of the citizens in an organization in network than in the current liberal economic system but it is precisely what the leaders of our systems of capacities want to avoid.
Examples of common properties in our history
The urban development in Europe:
The last use of the common property in particular on the real level in Europe developed starting from the territory of current France. It is about the birth of the cities around the abbeys as from years 800 until worms the years 1300, the cities developing then without resorting to this legal technique and using more and more the personal property in the framework of a commercial economy or the collective ownership when the royalty made the decision to create or to develop such port, such fortified town, such mine field or invoicing machine for the safety or the enrichment of its kingdom.
After the invasions which reflect fine with the Roman empire and the conquest of the country by the frank people, the distribution of the grounds in duchies, counties lead to the feudal system and a system of very powerful hierarchical capacity. Against being able was ensured by the Christian church and particularly by the monastic movement Benedictine created in year 500 the Cassin Mount and developed in France in the east of the country: Baumes les Messieurs, Holy Mount Odile then in Cluny, Cîteaux, Clairvaux. These Christian communities continued political, economic and social work of the temples of Egypt which were in relation to the great centers of development of humanity, since the basin of the Mediterranean to the valleys of the Himalayas, China and across the Atlantic Ocean, to the high plateaus of the Andes.
Around the abbey, the city develops by accommodating the peasants who want to escape from serfdom and autocratic and despotic lords. The monks who have the instruction and know-how transmit them these techniques and this knowledge, initially to build buildings and ramparts. At the end of one year, the former peasant subjected to serfdom became free and citizen of the city: the lord did not have any more any right on him. The joint project to develop a city was based on the right to freedom compared to the living conditions of the feudal policy system. “The city makes free”. We know that the management of the cities could escape the political powers as much from the church only from monarchies: the episcopal cities had to fight to push back the sights of the monarchs until absolute capacities are ingénient to extend their authority on vaster populations by eliminating these local common properties to integrate them in the collective ownership of the kingdom or the empire.
The free cities met around confederations to protect the ones the others mainly like the royal armies. The confederation of the ten free cities of Alsace, Décapole, is an example of this organization in network (and the tourists of the whole world always has a presentiment of themselves in these cities to see the vestiges of this flourishing time). The monastic order developed starting from Cluny tried to eliminate the small lords from war by sending them in crusade and owe the failure of the crusades, Bernard de Clairvaux founded the order knight of the Temple., These monks soldiers defended the development of the abbeys and from the free cities, they went in particular to Mexico to make trade to bring back the money which was used to finance the commercial and noncommercial saving in their organization in network, mainly the construction of the cathedrals. In 500 years: year 900 to 1400, these monastic orders, knights, companions builders, tradesmen, navigators took part in the construction of buildings whose volume out of stones is 50 times superior with the volume of stones built in 5000 years by Egyptian civilization, pyramids included/understood. The joint project was simple: to build on the local level of the places of life ensuring peace, the division of the richnesses and the elimination of the social risks: famine, wars, ignorance. And this organization was prosperous: it marks the birth of current Europe in an organization in network which did not use the old political and military receipts of the Roman empire: domination of the people by the military force of the legions.
It is obvious that the use of the right was more reduced: grounds having been conquered militarily by the frank ones: the transfer of property was done by simple donation between a representative of the political power and the person in charge for a monastic community. These educated people were the only ones with being able to develop an area in a social and economic order structured able to collect the adhesion of the people. Within the cities, the use of the direct democracy, as the time of the Egyptian or Greek cities, allowed the management of their development. The exemption of the taxes to versed to the church of Rome and the various kings ensured a division of the richnesses the local plan to facilitate the investments. The monks who had the knowledge and technologies transmitted these techniques to the new members of the city and the districts developed according to the distribution of the trades: the district of the tanners, that of the fishermen, the goldsmiths, etc In these districts, it did not have there ceaseless commercial wars with blows of balances, reduction, rebates on imported products of country where the labor is less expensive. These craftsmen, tradesmen lived in the same districts for better using the resources, to help in the improvement of their productions, to take part in the realization of the works decided by their city.
The only losers in this organization in network were the central capacities: the papacy of Rome and especially the king of France which was ruined and did not have any more the means of appeasing its expansionist aimings on the whole of the country: its only future became a small kingdom similar to those which existed on the other side of the Rhine and lived sparely in the Saint Worsens Romain Germanique whose leader was elected by his pars. We know that Philippe the Beautiful one did not resign himself to this destiny and decided to plunge the country in political crises and wars without end to establish a royal absolutism and to reject a confederal political system. The cities then lost their original freedom to become wheels of the centralized royal administration, which they are always as long as the prefectures and sub-prefectures will not have been removed within the framework of the regional decentralized administration of the Republic. And we showed on our Web site, that the efforts of Jeanne d' Arc and her party, to reverse this political tendency remained vain.
The management of harvests in the Trobriands islands and among “forgotten” people
The insufficiencies of the development of the industrial era, the working misery justified in the name of the free exercise of the personal property caused many reactions. In front of the absence of another model of development compared to capitalism, the most fertile interventions were those of the explorers or ethnologists who évertuèrent themselves to show that other people forgotten or said wrongfully “primitive” could organize themselves well better than us to eliminate misery and the injustices. An example was provided by Malinowski through its study on the natives of the Trobriands islands in Mélanésie.
The land and buildings are transmitted in the family and the real goods are managed jointly: there is no real personal property. A member of a family can be individual owner of his tools which it itself will have worked or which it will have received in gift but it cannot require that the grounds of its family be divided. On the other hand, a family can decide to increase her grounds by clearing the forest, which represents a considerable work whose honor will be allocated to the people who will have carried it out. To guarantee the optimization of harvests and the elimination of the famine, all the grounds are cultivated jointly by the women who pass together from one field to the other. During harvest, the heap will be divided into proportion of the surfaces had by each family. The joint project which is at the base of this management of the real estate is limpid: to ensure the food of all in the respect of the efforts of each one.
Another example: the use of the common property of the monasteries among people of the Himalayas. We find here the survival of the systems of management used in Europe after the end of the Roman empire. The arable lands being very few in these areas of high mountains, it is not possible to divide them with the wire of the generations: each child would find with a ground increasingly tiny incompetent to nourish his family. The transmission of the whole of the inheritance is thus done to the elder son. If there are too many children, some will be entrusted to a nearby monastery and will become LAMA. Instead of being individual owner, they will become actors of the common property which is used of insurance and refuge in the event of difficulties: they will learn how to read and write to use the techniques of construction, the techniques of manufacture of food: beer, wine, cheese, bread, etc, techniques agricultural to advise the peasants, medical techniques, etc. The common property is used then basic logistics with the conservation and the development of the personal property. In the event of war or from bad harvest, people will come to the monastery to take refuge or to have care, to have to eat. There are not social exclusion and between the future of the elder son who will remain probably illiterate and will pass his life to cultivate the fields of his family and that of the children juniors which will be informed and become technicians or experts in sciences and technologies, the choice can be discussed but none the children will be thrown in the street or will be sold to merchants work to other avid individual owners to exploit human misery to grow rich on a purely private basis!
Temples and places of initiation:
The human beings seldom take the trouble to pile up stones for the only leisure to tire themselves. Any construction has a direction and satisfies a need. Common buildings well more still the domestic home.
Put aside the satisfaction of the physiological needs and the fight against the food shortage and the famine, the common buildings are primarily directed by people who make wishes not grow rich personally by diverting the common property: it is of the monks themselves directed by spiritual Masters and initiates with the mysteries of the life. The ancient temple is then the center of a common space which gathers the places of education, care, prayer but also of places reserved for the love and more secretly held, of the places of spiritual initiation able to support the states of decorporation so that the person can go to the research of the capacities of the worlds superior and double. The Holy of Holies in the Egyptian temple is well the place where the carnal body of that rests which left to cross the well of light. Nobody must touch there: the initiate returning naturally in his body to leave itself this part, if not in the event of failure and from carnal death, the odor of putrefaction is the signal to evacuate the corpse. Alexandra David Neel reports the case of rooms identical to Tibet but instead of evacuating the corpse, that gradually descends a slope to finish at the bottom of a drain in a small basin. The liquid is then used in certain magic rites. It is clear that the aim of this initiatory research is obtaining a vision of the mysteries if not a comprehension of a part of them before returning on the planet Ground. If the initiate would be allowed to remain in the other life and would change his desire to return under his human condition, its new capacities would enable him to announce this change to its close relations remained on Earth and it would give them sign to bury or burn its skin before even as it does not break up. These constructions are carried out to ensure the direct way towards initiation and they concern only initiates prepared with such a step. It are the guardians of the major knowledge on the mysteries of the life from which the values founders of a culture are worked out. Among this fundamental knowledge, in Egypt as at other places on ground, it is necessary to arrange the vestiges safeguarded of former civilizations, mainly of those which existed before the last great cataclysm, before 12.000 years if we count starting from aujourd' today.
These places built for supreme initiation in which the applicant risks his life are rare and there exist only in some places for each civilization. The other temples are places of prayer built for a more mystical approach of spirituality. Architecture, the resonance of the sound waves, the play of the light, all must support the division of the emotions, in particular of the emotion vis-a-vis the beauty, so that of this division of the emotions is set up a step of visualization in order to touch the intercession of the presence which lives in us and will help us to carry out the desire to make good with the one of our close relations. The goal of these constructions is to multiply the experiments of successful prayer. To support these chances of communion with our source of life, the division of the mystical emotion must gather a group many of faithful which by its songs, its prayers will create moments of exaltation merry and reassuring. We will not reconsider here the two spiritual revolutions which we present on this Web site: the history shows us two main categories of temple according to the people which had or not already arrived at the second spiritual revolution: in the first category which had taken a first spiritual step, we find the places of human sacrifices then of sacrifices of animals: the temple of Jerusalem at the time of Jesus had fallen down in this first category from where will of Jesus to remake of this place a temple with the service of God: a temple without equipment for the sacrifices of animals. In the second category, the temples are not any more the place of sacrifices of animals but they have a Holy of Holies who allow the initiate to be preserved the time of his stay in the other life or then, a space which recalls the original Holy of Holies and preserves a trace or a symbol related to the testimony of the initiates who are brought out from the original Holy of Holies: the Christian churches are built on this principle and are located in the prolongation of the Egyptian temples.
Places of love and erotic festivities:
The temples were also used as school of love and of the women having statute of priestesses the men and the women helped on the way of the sexual extase and the fusion of their bodies, step which is also an initiatory and spiritual way.
These places disappeared and were prohibited in the patriarchal companies which plastered the place of the woman to a lower statute compared to the man. The closed houses are not houses of love and sexual initiation towards spirituality. On the other hand in the companies matriarcales, the women, even the helped girls or not of their parents were responsible for houses of loves which sheltered the young couples before their marriage, or the passing lovers for a few hours. These houses existed among natives of the Trobriands islands. At the Moso people, the women receive directly at them and the house comprises parts where the night they can light the “small fire of love”. The discretion and the absence of jealousy make it possible to carry out the debates in love and sensual, each couple being interested only in him and not behaving as a Peeping Tom or exhibitionist.
The erotic and orgiaques festivals took place their appointed like their fixed dates. We saw on this site, the role of these events on the management of violences. It is clear that a system of being able which intends to make reign the order with its army or its police force comes to contradict these rites and comes to make them useless: those and those which use these rites to evacuate individual and collective violences do not need to maintain a police force and to pay taxes to maintain it. They are two completely different visions of the world and noncomplementary and the result in a case is radically better than in the other.
Real joint projects in a current organization in network
The great project of the capitalist and liberal economy lies in the mass production of tangible properties to satisfy the individual needs so that the individuals deal with the material management of these goods and are diverted religious questions or policies which were sources of too many wars and crimes: to produce in mass of the real goods belongs to this political good-will and this republican ideal: the house always forms part of the dream of our contemporaries.
So put aside the private properties reserved for the dwelling, since 1789, they are especially the industrial buildings and the buildings of businesses which mark our territories. To guarantee the availability of the labor, of the buildings of health took over alms house old held by religious orders. We arrived at the stage where almost all the needs are provided and if we are inclined to imagine new buildings serving the common property, of continuation we took the reflex of our liberal economic education to exclaim that never we will not have financial means to ensure such daydreams. The commercial management of the buildings through companies which are the property of private shareholders will avoid any wasting and overdrawn management able to impoverish the group under the weight of the unpaid credits. The investment in new of the same buildings can only follow the law of the productivity and financial profitability. So if it is necessary to create new buildings of health, of love, prayers (initiation being prohibited, it does not have there creation of buildings here, knowing that the buildings built by sects do not have anything initiatory: the study of a gnosis is a means of education to subject people to a system of being able very arranged hierarchically and dogmatic), the solution passes by the commercial economy and any mediation of the state is suspect and criticizable by nature. Therefore, we would be at the stage where the joint projects managed in a noncommercial economy would become impossible. This to protect the commercial economy from future and certain ruin if our companies have suddenly used the noncommercial economy to satisfy these needs through management for the common property.
Present needs able to be ensured by the introduction of a common property:
Let us start with the formerly satisfied needs in buildings managed by the organizations in network and mainly start with the places of prayers and initiation and education through the first source of knowledge:
Places and common buildings of prayers
To form of the applicant (E) S with the meeting with the mysteries of the life does not have anything monk at the beginning. The spiritual step which leads to the meeting with what lives in us, gives our values, our reasons of living and dying which are the same ones for each human being. Our systems of civil and religious capacities adapted these places of training of the life and the quarrel to know which is the personal owner between the state or a particular religion, our movement eliminates these quarrels by leaving these systems from civil and religious capacities.
In an organization in network, these places of prayers and initiation are opened with any researcher of spirituality: no more or less sectarian and fanatic religious dogmas has right of city. The translations of the mysteries of the life concern the cultures of the people knowing that the spiritual roots of these translations speak about the same life. Each culture can grant a weight more or less different to testimonys from these spiritual Masters but none has the right to set up dogmas to introduce inequalities between human beings or to assume the capacity to impose an alleged truth on populations under penalty of fighting the inaccurate ones to even massacre them. The vestiges of these buildings and the buildings current are accessible to all the human beings which want to request and know the experiment of the successful prayer, that is to say the first stage of the spiritual advance. A poet, an initiate can seek this moment of prayer successful in nature close to a tree, a river, a mountain just like it can seek it in a Christian church whatever it is, a mosque, a Buddhist temple or hindouist, a synagog, a cave or a cathedral. The only difference will be the presence or not of other human beings at its sides with the signs of their cultures. But it is the single difference and when the poet requests and communicates with his source of life, when in the vocabulary of Rimbaud, the conspicuous poet creates a dialog of the heart for the heart, all human beings are his/her brothers especially if they seek them-also to dialog with their heart. On the other hand, in all the current places of prayer, the poet seeing like others before him, can drive out the merchants of the temple, the mosques, the caves, the churches, the synagogs, etc These merchants sell the adulterated truths their dogmas to legitimate systems of unjust, quarrelsome and criminal temporal powers in their will absurdity to eliminate those and those which refuse to yield in front of them… The history of people which are translated in a culture gives particular real constructions. These architectural translations of the spiritual experiment are worthy of respect and belong to the variety of the situations of life on Earth. Constructions intended to mark the capacity of a political régime or a temporal religion do not have this same spiritual value. We repeat it: the architecture of the places of prayer is intended to support the occasions of successful prayer: a person, it does not matter her culture, which penetrates a place of prayer, there finds the emotion of the place to make a success of her dialog of the heart for the heart. This dialog is the same one for any human being: no sectarian rite can come to impose a particular form which would be good and the other condemnable form. It is obvious that a group can always destroy a religious building which does not have an interest particular to be preserved to explain the history, in order to build another good completed better of it to facilitate the experiments of prayers successful through the communion and the division of the faith in our source of life, expressed by a community or a crowd. As for the question of knowing if each temporal religion to be higher than another must have more sumptuous buildings, rich and many, it is only one question concerned with the systems of religious capacities. We have already on this Web site that in an organization in network, there is no place for the systems of religious capacities.
Houses of loves and erotic places of rites intended to evacuate violences:
In our novel, “D' Eleusis to Dendérah, the prohibited evolution”, we described these places since the club for couples created by our characters and of which operation has nothing to do with what currently occurs in the clubs plus louse minus French exchangers managed in more the tradition of the commercial economy and the maximization of the profit for the private owner. We collected many testimonys on these commercial practices. The majority of these clubs exploit the men alone who pay expensive to scan the few couples become of quasi professional of the sex and often of doped sex or people prone to a addiction with the sex. If the owner or the owner remunerates these some couples in one way or another, they are certain to see thriving their business. It is then enough to let enter everyone: even couples which come to see without removing least clothing. In the alleys of this kind of club, it is frequent to see couples or groups of women forsaken by their men to pass from doors in doors to see what occurs there and to be then made with high voice false confidences as no matter what they had never to dare to imagine such things. The couples with the little developed exhibitionnism and the couples which understand that they are actually used as free soft foods for the tradesmen in order to fill their till do not give any more the feet in this kind of places where trônent on the private carpark the new car of great luxury of the owners. It is obvious that a club for couples which has accommodated more than 300 couples per week and this for more than 20 years, can have very an other relational policy but it is quite as obvious as this club since these beginnings, forever have the kind of commercial practice of the majority of the French clubs. German education and French education are different on the culture from the body, naturism, the sex in group but it is not an excuse: if there is an educational effort to realize, it is this effort which it should be carried out and if the commercial economy is not favourable to finance such a movement, then it is necessary to use the noncommercial economy in complement of the commercial economy.
The buildings which we describe in our movement, answer three levels of use: the making of contact, awakening, the discovery of sexuality for the first level, the schools of love for the second level which are a continuation of the centers of tantrism or temples ensuring the way of the extase sexual and in love, finally buildings and more perhaps the places in nature which guarantee the success of the rites orgiaques. In our novel, the choice of the clue answers this third level and the practice of these rites will use to prepare the knights with their initiation before fighting successfully for the survival of their movement.
These buildings use the pleasures related to water which are practiced in nudity and are places above all relaxation and relieving. Each member learned art from the massages and relieving to practice it with the others. The use of the exercises of will tantra allows then the division of moments of extase. In our novel, the movement created by the characters will establish houses of life and love downtown and with the countryside. For example, near the places of work, a house of love will have several utilities: the voluntary members can come by bicycle since their residence, park their bicycle with the shelter and in safety, take a shower, change and get dressed in behavior of work. After work and before returning on their premises, they can on the spot slacken, take releasing baths, practice between them massages, make love, take meals, spend the night if a meeting is prolonged or if they want to look further into a relation before founding a couple.
Houses of life and health
The present need relates mainly to and the end old people's homes of lifetime when the individual loses his independence. The current financing of the too insufficient old people's homes managed by the commercial economy is ensured by the funds of pension other than French and the return on their investments in 2005 is higher than 10%. These profits paid dearly by the French families thus will finance the foreign savers and will contribute to the payment of their own retirements. Thus a family which pays the old people's home for one of her parents finances also the retirement of foreign people. It is the price to be paid for the freedom of the trade and industry and the fact that our national political system does not have enough resources drawn from the taxes to finance this new expenditure of health. Exceeded by the events and in contradiction with the republican pact established in the years 1860 when following the ideas of Durckheim, the state endorsed the role of social insurer, the state can only leave the free field to the commercial investment: the taxpayers thus pay taxes n the other hand of which they will not have the public utility rendered by the republic. It is a manner, one of more than note the state of bankruptcy of our institutions and this fixed republican culture since 1789 in its Utopias with end of breath.
Houses of exchange of local services
They are described in our novel, they are companies taking part in the development mainly of the noncommercial economy.
Dwelling houses domestic:
We showed in our novel how the members of the movement organize themselves to build or improve their residences. This effort of construction and equipment is managed by the bancassurance movement: the improvements are carried out within the framework of the prevention of the disasters: set fire to, flood, damage of water. But these buildings are also arranged within the framework of the prevention of faintnesses social: insulation; fight against the noise, reception of the handicapped people, the children, the dependant people, etc the exchange of local services manages relational flows. A household does not acquire any more one property for all its life but while placing in such or such building and while taking part in such or such local service, it acquires rights to be placed at an advantageous price and/or it capitalizes future rights to be placed in a larger building when it has children, a building in such area for its holidays or its retirement. The enrichment of its real inheritance passes of course by work but in the organization in network, we showed it, work is not limited any more to the generalization of wage-earning and work for requirements of economic and financial productivity. It is about the human activity in work essential to the survival of the group, in work to carry out transmissible works with his children and real constructions represent more the share of these works and finally of the activity in the political action to develop the organizations in networks within the framework of the direct democracy. The transformation of the districts and the suburbs built since 1945 and which do not meet any more our needs for life, is carried out within the framework of the organization in network in this manner: the residents of these buildings which adhere to the local area network take part in this work, direct them with the experts in this task force and all grow rich individually through the common property thus created, the architectural and real work which they built. And one does not need a billion and a billion euros to make it even if if currently in the commercial economy, it is well this price which the taxpayers must pay to the private contractors.
Houses of education and training to the two sources of knowing
They are briefly described in our novel and we describe for example how a student can see himself decreed the title of doctor of data processing at 20 years. We will develop soon all the part relating to the formation and management of competences on our site by specifying what represents for our movement the common property intellectual and immaterial, before specifying then how the marriage of the cultures is organized (like the last successful in Europe from Cluny)
To recognize the real projects assembled by an association of small holders of grounds or buildings passes today by the suppression of betterment tax. The positive impact of these projects can be checked by the authorities. The contributions of these projects are productive of quality of life, of optimized adjustment of the environment, reasoned use of the utility services. These real projects cause individual richness for the members of the project as for the local community and the exchanges are not limited to only one and single financial transaction. Within the framework of solidarity between the members of the network of local life, the carriers of the real project will validate their choice in front of the remainder of the group and of the members of the group can intervene to optimize this project more so that its economic and social impact stronger and is successful. Since the direction is traced, that the social purpose is posed clearly, all know in which direction it is necessary to work: this direction is common to the group and it is carried in the project. It is clear that enrichment cannot be whereas common and it is only once this joint project carried out which each one an enrichment in the use of this common good or in work that will find personal should have been produced to carry out this real estate. We are well here in practice of the direct democracy and in the use of the principle of subsidiarity to solve the difficulties. We showed that the revolution of 1789 sought to dig a gap between the citizens and the state so as to apply the ideas of Rousseau: the individual will of a citizen should not be distorted by special interest groups civil and especially monk so that the whole of the wills citizens represents best the general interest. The common buildings for these special interest groups were thus eliminated, in particular at the time the churches and abbeys. This common real estate however exists today but it is limited to the life of associations of the law of 1901, with the life of the trade unions, the political parties and the religious movements. In an organization in network, it is necessary to add the buildings being used for the noncommercial economy, those intended for the practice of the spiritual step according to the four sources of spirituality: direct and initiatory source, mystical source, source related to the extase sexual and in love, source related to the use of substances hallucinogens: this source remains secondary and can only prepare with the three preceding sources. Concurrently to these buildings, there are the buildings which are used for the artistic translation of the meeting with the mysteries of the life: they exist and the majority are appropriate for this mission.
The development of the common property as well real, movable that intellectual and immaterial does not use the framework of a commercial economy. In our novel, we show that the exchange of its services is carried out within the framework of a noncommercial economy with a currency symbolic system. The services rendered to others open rights to receive others or to use the jointly managed goods from them. This capitalization of rights born by work was defended in particular by Pierre Leroux about 1830, it is at the base of socialism even if Marx and Engels did not use it so much it threatened already centralization of the communist capacity and dictatorship of the proletariat. Nothing is free a priori but it is not necessary to use the official currency of its country. Of course, the organization in network does not pour taxes with the states: an accountancy makes it possible to show to the managers of the collective ownership that the internal exchanges with the network are productive richnesses distributed equitably among the members and that the positive balance of these exchanges contributes to the reduction of the public expenditure: more allowances unemployment to be poured with the members of the network, RMI, better health of the members, motivation raised in the production work of tangible properties essential to the life of the community, elimination of the sexual delinquency among members and sexual misery in the community thanks to the events created by the members bound for the nonadherent public, elimination of consumption of drug and harmful substances which make difficult the exchanges in love and with the relations sexual source of extase, etc…. This reduction in the current costs generated by the fears with respect to employment, from abroad, the absence of projects of life, etc, these eliminations of the political, economic and social dysfunctions make that as at each time it is installation, the organization in network causes one flourishing period which benefits the populations even if it ruins the former leaders of the systems of being able. Essence is more to enable them to again break the rise of a company organized in networks of life.
Today, our companies are in lack of federator projects of energies citizens so much they are sclerosed under the law of the destroying personal property of richnesses to the profit of a minority. The example of our small village of mountain illustrates this blocking and this incurie in the regional planning and the satisfaction of the need to place itself. A personal property can develop only by depriving the others of this property. Formerly this deprivation passed by plundering and the wars and it was the principal character of the Roman empire. Before him, the people organized in network traded between them and the empires lasted only the time of their conquerors. They were only subjected people which entered more one confederation directed by the winner than in the system of being able centralized and single of the Roman empire imposed permanently by the presence of the legions.
Currently, the liberal economic system develops on the deprivation of money imposed on the populations. The benefit realized in the manufacturing process of the richnesses go in priority to the shareholders, with those which have sufficient money to save and place their saving in the property of the means of production. The money passes from a personal property source to the same personal property recipient. To maximize this financial investment in the progression of his richness, the owner contractor decides money which is versed to the employees, free with him to reduce the wage bill of the company if the machines are more productive and do not pay social security contributions. The suppression of employment leads directly to the removal of money at the employee and to more money at the individual owner. The personal property very badly serves the development of our companies and wastes resources with the profit of some. All know it and more and more people are now convinced by it. On the other hand to speak about commercial and noncommercial economy is not included/understood yet by large world and the concept of property common used to the Early middle ages to develop the cities in which we however live today, gives birth to at the majority a feeling from dislike so much their ignorance their fact of confusing this flourishing period of our history with the errors and the crimes of Communism (by forgetting with the passage the crimes of the other systems of capacities). The preamble to the Declaration of the rights of man and of the citizen of 1789 proclaims well that “ignorance, the lapse of memory or the contempt of the humans right are the only causes of public misfortunes and the corruption of the governments”.
Ignorance on the organization in network has been organized for 2000 years and by the papacy and the leaders of the systems of civil capacities monarchical and republicans in France and elsewhere. We showed it in our developments on Authority-Capacity-Command. The remark that we make with this text of 1789 does not relate to the misfortunes caused by ignorance so much they are universal but do not constitute of anything the elements of the cause beyond control. On the other hand, why speak only about the governments? The good savage of Voltaire on the edges of the Large Lakes in North America through the confederation of the six people iroquois did not need a government whereas the extent of the six nations is largely higher than the French territory and that before being massacred, they were as a few million Indians to living definitely better as us according to assertions' of Benjamin Franklin, Jefferson, Adams, Washington like later of Marx and Engels, which, acknowledg, are not to it free assertions! The first study on this confederation iroquoise date of 1727 and in 1744, Benjamin Franklin publishes a treaty signed between the colonists and the chiefs of the confederation iroquoise. Admittedly Voltaire dies 11 years before the Revolution but for more than 50 years before 1789, much had known the considerable advantages of this organization in network around a confederation. Well better than the iroquois example, they could remember that this organization had been practiced on the ground of France since years 900 until 1300 before being taught with the iroquois about 1350 by the monks templiers who had fled the destruction of their kind by the king of France and who travelled from Scotland towards the Andes and the area of Tiahuanaco. Ignorance is a thing but the lack of clearness and the courage another and much most serious when we had access to knowledge and that we are not any more ignoramuses.
The rejection of the common property, bases organization in network, indeed constitutes a serious error made in 1789. This error deprives the citizens of the advantages of the noncommercial economy. As the historians conclude: 1789 are a revolution of middle-class men who want to take the place of noble by using the right of the personal property. They succeeded! But the misfortunes caused by the lapse of memory of the organization in network and by the contempt thrown on the defenders of this alternative always harm the respect of the humans right so much these systems of capacities live only on the principle of exclusion of those and those which are not useful any more for the development of the richness and the capacity of its leaders. We have enough tangible properties of which we are not able besides any more to demolish us so much they pollute our discharges or reject dioxane in the air. The right to housing is not assured any more and to pour more half of its incomes drawn from the work paid in buildings with quality so doubtful only our children will not want any or will not be able to repair them, represents an unjust situation desired by this system of economic capacity whereas the use of work and the exchanges in the noncommercial economy can produce buildings of better quality without being obliged to use such a share of its earned incomes. To carry out this real work, the political action consists in positioning back the right to the common property in a noncommercial economy, that which certain economists called quaternary economy or third sector of the economy and that we name here by his original name: economy in network which is opposed to the economy directed by a system of being able. In our declaration with the rights to the life on ground and in our constitution of the networks citizens of life, the articles founding this common property again will have all the weight which they deserve and this political action carried one much larger than a simple respectful electoral outline programme of legal of the constitution of 1958.
To build always represents a work and civilizations were evaluated with the way in which it placed a stone on another to carry out residences at which we are always amazed. The project to build is however not isolated, it usually intervenes after the project of living together, the project to implement a culture based on values, standards of life and ways of living. If the construction of buildings remains the most concrete mark of the project of life of a group social, the common property is not limited to buildings, it also relates on the movable property and the immaterial goods and services. Education and training with the use of the two sources of knowledge are also a property common to the group which allows the construction of a culture from which each one draws its reasons of living. It is this immaterial common property which we will approach soon, then we will approach the management of work, the management of a network. Right now we know that we will find the formulation of other projects in the middle of this common property.
history of the richnesses
SEXUAL LIFE OF THE SAVAGES
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