result of the operation of the liberal economic system. 

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From the study of Jacques Freyssinet: unemployment, 10th edition, April 2002, collection Reference mark, the Discovery.

to order the book: unemployment

1) origins of unemployment :

" Any human community must, to ensure the cover of the needs for its members, to implement their capacities of work, i.e. their capacity to use and transform their natural environment in order to produce tangible properties and useful services. Multiple factors can explain why the mobilization of these capacities of work is not total ; such an underutilization is observed, except exceptional periods, in all the social systems that the history enables us to observe. It is not enough to define the existence of unemployment, situation in which an individual is in the search of an employment and does not find any. Unemployment is born only in specific forms from social organization characterized by generalization from wage-earning like forms dominant of setting in work remunerated work. The appearance of unemployment thus supposes joined together several conditions.

unemployment implies a cut meanwhile social work, intended to get an income, and private or domestic working time, intended for the direct satisfaction of the needs for the family group.... The variation of their, and thus respective level working times of satisfaction of the needs, is used as regulator ; social work and private work are constantly overlapping in the concrete activity. 

 The appearance of unemployment supposes that social work is the object of a commercial exchange, i.e. that the worker sells his labour force to an employer. It is the fact of not finding a purchaser for his labour force which defines the statute of unemployed.

Unemployment is born with generalization from wage-earning ; within this framework, the worker does not have another possibility of participation in social work, and thus of source of income, that obtaining a paid employment.

 The history of unemployment is thus that of the extension of wage-earning, in other words of the extension of the mode of capitalistic production "

 2) interdependences between employment, unemployment and inactivity.

 Unemployment is not only the residual difference between the offers and the applications for a job. The level of unemployment conditions in a certain manner the level of employment. The strategy of the companies will resort more or less to employment according to the level of constraints of the labour market, the report/ratio of force with the trade unions. In the event of crisis, the State will help the creation of jobs in the companies and these assistances have an effect of aubaine which tends to disappear when unemployment is weak.

The bond between unemployment and inactivity also varies according to the level of employment. In the event of raised unemployment, the young people tend to remain inactive and to continue studies and the women tend to work in domestic tasks without going applicant for work, which minimizes of as much the number of the applicants for work. Conversely, in period of growth and creation of jobs, these public goes applicant for work. This phenomenon plays for industrial employment which concern the men more and for tertiary employment which concerns the women more. The destruction of industrial employment creates an unemployment for the old men whereas the creations of jobs in the tertiary sector push the women to require work, which increases also the number of applicants for work.

It does not remain about it less than to want to remain in nonpaid domestic occupations means today to deprive themselves of a consequent source of income and to restrict its standard of living compared to a model of household made up of two full-time employment and at unspecified duration.

"  unemployment is not a balance resulting from the separate determination of the level of the use and that of the working population ".

3) the rise of unemployment rests on a permanent component and a component of the economic situation

 " the permanent component is born from the distortion between the regular growth in France of the working population and it quasi trend stagnation of the aggregate employment. So the categories which enter on the labour market encounter enormous difficulties to find an employment ; they are mainly the young people leaving the school system and the women whose activity ratios continued during the crisis the upswing that they had started before. Moreover, the increase in unemployment leads the employers to exert a greater selectivity the at the time of recruitment : vis-a-vis with multiple candidatures, they can raise the threshold of their requirements. Consequently, the holders of low qualification or training levels will be victims of this evolution ".

 "  the component of the economic situation is associated the phases of industrial recession ; the principal ones burst in 1974, 1980 and 1991. They are marked by growth rates of gross domestic product close to zero or negative. ... The growth of unemployment is brutal ; it results mainly from the job losses undergone by the workers : dismissals, end of precarious employment.... Unemployment touches mainly industrial employment and the men are more strongly victims ; it reaches all the categories of industrial employment, including the skilled workers.

In the phases of slow growth, the permanent component is dominant ; unemployment evolves/moves in an uneven way. In the phases of industrial recession, the component of the economic situation is superimposed on the first and its influence carries it : unemployment grows quickly, but the inequalities are reduced because the industrial reorganizations strike categories hitherto relatively saved (adult men, skilled workers)"

4) unemployment is an uneven phenomenon

 the statistical analysis describes the situation :

the rate of unemployment of the women is largely higher than that of the men, whatever the age bracket (on average, 3,5 points moreover)

the rate of unemployment of the young people is more of the double of that of the adults, whatever the sex (on average 10 points moreover)

the rates of unemployment reflect the professional hierarchies : among the workmen, the rate of unemployment of described as 7,3%, that of is not qualified is 17,1% (investigation INSEE, 2001)

These inequalities tend to be filled in the massification of unemployment at the time of the crises which touch all the categories of workers. But the rise of unemployment gives birth to from other more consequent and explosive social fractures.

 Vis-a-vis with the unemployment risk, the international comparison shows that the people do not have the same answer, do not set up the same means of prevention.



Together Men Women Less than 25 years


























" In Germany, with the difference of the four other countries, the rate of unemployment of the young people is hardly higher than the national average whereas in Italy it is triple ; in the United Kingdom, the rate of unemployment of the women is lower than that of the men whereas it is the double in Spain. " 

Each country thus brings a response according to its culture. Germany through its practice of the training occupies itself of placing its young people in an employment. In the countries of the south, the family traditions perdurent : priority with the man, then with the woman, then the children.  

In France, we said on this Web site that this phenomenon of unemployment has been used in a tradition which privileges the technical capital with the detriment of the factor work, modern translation of the distrust for 700 years which the leaders towards the people have which during more than four century between 900 and 1 300 had developed a flourishing company on the basis of of an organization in network and a common property managed by monastic orders, orders knights then by cities free or more or less émancipées compared to an increasingly weak and ruined royal capacity. This choice to invest massively in the machines and technologies without worrying about the men, was justified by the fact of having to withdraw itself from too heavy loads of personnel then by requirements of competitiveness, nonfounded arguments. The organization of the capacity in the French company is for us directly in question in the management of the unemployment which translates more defense of private personal interests than a general interest. This research of the maximum advantage has as a consequence which our system of production uses only one age group, that of the adults. With the discharge of the employers, the will of the policies and National Education to develop then to defend a vast monopoly in the system of formation of young people played a paramount part in the weak activity ratio of the young people from 15 to 24 years. The same objective to raise the level of qualification of the young people with Bac or Bac+2 would have to rest on an organization of the common formation between school and companies, as in Germany or in the Scandinavian countries.

 The disparities of the rates of unemployment also exist on the geographical level between the frontage is France in the process of disindustrialization and the western frontage which attracts the companies of the tertiary sector (proximity of the beaches, the sea, etc).

At the level of the professional branches, the branch of construction arrives at the head (11,1% of the total of unemployed), it concentrates variations of the economic situation, precarious employment and hand of work little qualified. The trade largely uses precarious employment. The branch of energy (3,6%) is parcelled out best because its employees, as a majority under statute of the public office, are protected from the job loss. 

The diploma remains the best asset to avoid unemployment

 Rate of unemployment according to the diploma (March 2001) in % 

Without diploma or STOCK






VAT +2


Higher diploma


 5) conditions of unemployed entry :

The insertion of the young people at the exit of their formation was improved, the number of women who stop their work following a marriage or of a birth is in reduction. On the other hand the unemployed entry is done more and more following a dismissal. In 1975, they accounted for 50% of the unemployed entries for the men and 28,3% in 2001. On the other hand the unemployed entries following the end of a precarious employment became most numerous : 4,8% in 1975 for the men, they are 41,7% in 2001. For the women the rates are respectively 7,8% and 38,8%.

The accumulation of precarious employment which brings as a majority of the layoffs represents this social fracture except that now there are nothing any more but inactive even the few voluntary idlers which are found stripped, a strong proportion of paid (approximately 20% of the working population) are also found in a stripped social condition and become poor workers as at the 192nd century of which however we thought of forgetting this misery.

"  All in all, the evolution of the causes of unemployed entry is thus characterized by the weight growing of the decisions taken by the employers and the retreat of the factors which translate the behaviors of activity of the population. "This fact is added to as well others as it increases than one faintness more social, a feeling of injustice and a repulsion towards the shown leading class of partiality and to break national cohesion between France of in-high and France of in-low. 

6) the exit of unemployment

the employability, probability within a population the unemployed ones, to find an employment for a given period, is a mainly function of the seniority in unemployment. The probability of finding an employment decreases when the duration of unemployment lengthens. The criteria of selection of the employers support this exclusion of unemployed of long duration.

The fact that an employee in precarious employment loses his employment and finds one quickly of them cannot be interpreted like a good employability. The exit of precarious employment for employment at full times and unspecified duration is quite less "  A the opposite, those which lost a durable employment have more difficulties in leaving unemployment but, when they reach that point, are likely more to obtain a stable professional reintegration ". A past in precarious employment seems to sign the membership of a new class of paid not envisaged by the law the labour. It is the stagnation in unemployment Today  ", the risk of unemployed entry is appreciably weaker in France than in the United States, in the United Kingdom and in Germany but the probability of leaving there is much weaker (OECD, perspective of employment, 1995) ".

7) the typology of the unemployed ones

"  In a context of mass unemployment, the selectivity of the labour market increases ; it tends to divide the population of unemployed into sub-groups of which the employability is largely determined by their professional past. "

"  repetitive unemployment : concern especially the young people recently left the school system and women who seek, after a long interruption, to take again an occupation. This category is characterized by a high percentage of little qualified workers and former holders of precarious employment ". They have little right to allowances unemployment and they cannot be demanding. 

"  the unemployment of conversion strikes mainly workers who, hitherto titular of a stable employment, are victims of a lay-off. "They are mainly men who come from industry and the building. They profit from a relatively favorable compensation. 

"  the unemployment of exclusion constitutes a third category whose development represents one of the most unacceptable consequences of the economic crisis. They are workers who present themselves on the labour market with handicaps such as their probability of insertion is very weak in a context of increased selectivity. Except if they profit from specific measurements, they seem condemned to an unemployment of very long duration which generates the degradation of the aptitudes for work, the discouragement and finally the abandonment of the search for employment. In parallel, their rights to the compensation are reduced or disappear. "This population is composed initially of workers known as" old ". The crisis touches new categories : the young people whose training level is insufficient which, if they refuse to enter the cycle of precarious employment and repetitive unemployment, is found in the marginality. The adult workers victims of lay-offs are added in areas in job loss and which does not offer any more a possibility of reconversion.

Proportion of unemployed people since 1 year or more, expressed as a percentage of total unemployment. Source : INSEE, employment survey. 

Age bracket




 15-24 years







 25-49 years






 50 years and more












 8) the traumatism of unemployment 

it touches the whole of the aspects of the individual, family and social life

unemployment is initially the loss of a social status "  the dismissal is perceived like an arbitrary exclusion of a productive process whose worker ensured the development. Whereas all the ideology, including employers', stresses the determining role of the workers in the effectiveness of the economic activity, those brutally take conscience of their situation of total dependence : they can be rejected without the quality of their work being blamed and without their contribution to the last prosperity of the company being taken into account. Unemployment is thus lived like a process of devalorization... "

We will reconsider largely this aspect bus in an organization in network based on the common property, this exclusion and this devalorization does not exist. We know that they are consequences of the abuse the right of personal property of the employers.

"  paid work is also at the base of the structuring of time, as well of the working time of time except work. Unemployment is not lived like spare time but like empty time ; the experiment of idleness is generating of trouble, anguish and culpabilisation ; it causes an incapacity to benefit from the serviceable time and, in particular, to develop activities of substitution ". We want to leave this structuring of the time conditioned by wage-earning, i.e. the decision of an individual owner. We will develop the working time within the framework of a project of life and will associate it the project of a generation, measuring unit common to those and those which can contribute and share a culture of rather homogeneous group.

The repercussions of unemployment over the family and social bonds, over the financial difficulties, are known. They largely come owing to the fact that this company and its system of being able impose a single model of acquisition of the richnesses all on the profit of the owners of the means of production and on the detriment of those which can only offer that their labour forces to the first. The alternative of the organization in network is the solution to eliminate these dysfunctions. We will largely return there.

9) theoretical explanations on the causes of unemployment

"  in the political debates or the media, three sources are advanced which can be summarized in a caricatural way as follows :

- unemployment is due to the surge of newcomers on the labour market or to the unjustified presence of certain categories of population on this market.

- unemployment is due to the unemployed ones : they are the unwillingness, bad information, the inaptitude, the excessive requirements, even the idleness which explain why some remain without employment ; that which wants to really work always ends up finding an employment.

- finally, not to forget it, let us mention the instrument of universal explanation of any social phenomenon : technical progress. "

 The demographic trends, the increase in the female activity ratio, the interruption of the positive migratory balances cannot alone explain the rupture of 1973 and the strong progression of the unemployment of mass since. It is not the working population which changed but well the evolution of employment. The United States and Japan knew a faster evolution of their working population and yet their rate of unemployment is weaker than that of France "  These results are incompatible with the thesis according to which the growth of unemployment would be a simple consequence of that of the resources of hand of work ".

The evolution of the population follows the market trends of work : resort to immigration in the event of shortage of hand of work as in the years 1950-1960. Then it was modified when the state decided to lengthen the duration of the studies and to support the departures in premature retirement in the years 1980 when it had become useless to train the employees of more than 50 years to the programmable automats (their to learn calculation from the integrals, etc.), with office automation, etc "  the evolution of the working population is the result of a mode and a rate of growth ".

"  the inadequacy of the qualifications acquired compared to the requirements of the working stations lately created would explain the inemployability of certain categories of hand of work. The responsibility rests then on the faulty operation of the system of formation, which it acts of initial formation or of formation continues... It results from it a frictional unemployment mainly due to the imperfection from the organization of the labour market and to the various obstacles with mobility ". This explains certain difficulties on particular labour markets (restoration, hotel trade, services with the people...) but this insufficiency of the systems of formation cannot be held for person in charge for the fall of activity and a weak growth for lack of competitiveness for the hand of work. The United States whose system of formation is criticizable A a low rate of unemployment whereas Sweden or Germany which has a system of formation which is used as example were not saved by strong assembled unemployment in years 1980. "  In international comparison, it has no total correlation there, neither in time, nor in space, between training level of and the level labour force of unemployment. It is not a question of anything of underestimating the importance of the effort of formation for the economic performance but of refusing the thesis of a causal connection with the level of unemployment. "

the thesis of the search for employment become more complicated and which would oblige the unemployed ones to prolong their search for employment until finding that which is appropriate to them, is not more likely to explain the unemployment of mass. This would be true if the volume of the nonsatisfied job offers would increase, but it drops in period of strong unemployment. In general, in period of strong unemployment, the absenteeism decreases and the applicants for work show themselves less demanding.

Technical progress intervenes in the rise of unemployment but it is necessary to distinguish the transitory effects of the introduction from a technology of the durable effects of technological progress. The evolution is often brutal and the introduction of a new technology is temporary source of a frictional unemployment. This level of frictional unemployment can be fought by efforts in the training area but the arrival of new technologies upsets each time the labour market. In the long run, the phenomenon is observed : it acts of the social discharge from one sector to another. The current problem is that the suppression of employment in the tertiary sector by the introduction of new data-processing technologies of communication will not be compensated any more by sufficient creations of jobs in industry or the primary sector.

"  There is thus well a relation between technical change and employment, but this relation is of nothing automatic. It is a function of the economic and social processes which operate in three principal fields :

- criteria of orientation of research and selection of the innovations

- the level and modes  of satisfaction of the needs

- conditions of use of the labour force.

The technical change is not, by nature, creator or destructor of employment ; it modifies the conditions of determination of the level of employment. In will it result more consumption, more spare time, more unemployment ? The answer does not lie in technical progress but in the modes of regulation of the productive system. "

10) the heart of the problem

 "  the heart of the problem resides in the interpretation of the rupture occurred around the year 1973. Two opposed readings were proposed by it ".

 the 10.1 exhaustion of a mode of accumulation :

after 1945, generalization of model of consumption of mass involves profits of productivity high (economies of scale) which ensures all at the same time the profitability of the investments and the possibility of a growth of the purchasing power of the employees " If the growth rates of the productivity are narrowly correlated at the growth rates of the production, they remain of a slightly lower level and, so the quantity of work necessary slowly increases. A slow movement of reduction of the duration of the work amplifies the evolution in terms of a number of employment... it is the virtuous circle. "

But this virtuous circle can be maintained only by investments increasingly more important until the moment when the profitability of capital invested decreases : the rate of profit carried out compared to the funded capital decreases. The companies tend then to be involved in debt to continue their investments and the rise in inflation becomes useful to more easily refund the loans " All the elements are joined together for a rupture of this pseudo-balance of fast growth. The crisis of the international monetary system since 1971, the policies of the economic situation of braking of the activity adopted by the majority of the countries in 1973, the quadrupling of the price of at the end of oil 1973 will be combined to start this rupture indeed.".

To leave this crisis, two models are advanced :

the 10.2 accumulation of harmful rigidities

it is the thesis of OECD, it is dominant today "  the developed economies accumulated, during the period which followed the Second World war, of multiple forms of rigidity on the capital and product, labour markets which gradually reduced their effectiveness. "the intervention of the state, the trade unions and the intermediate bodies deformed and solidified the system pricings and prevented the adjustments which ensure balance on the markets what causes ineffective allowances of resources and secure incomes. Social protection also weighed down the levies on the productive system and causes " the desincitation with work " and the " trap of the dependence " (absenteeism).

" the solution lies in policies of" structural reforms "which restore the mechanisms of competition fully. With regard to the labour market, the major requirement is that of flexibility : flexibility of the wages, the employment and the working times. It implies the calling into question of all the forms of regulation (by the state or the collective bargaining), decentralization, on the level of the company, of the fixing of the condition of uses, the reduction of social protection to a minimal net of safety. Under these conditions, the free operation of the labour market would ensure the balance of supply and demand, letting remain only the absenteeism (that of the people which do not agree to work in the conditions fixed by the market). "

the 10.3 debate between "traditional " unemployment and unemployment " keynésien " (or according to Keynes)

 "  Since the bursting of the crisis, a debate continues between those which locate the origin of the deceleration of the activity, of the decline of the use and the growth of unemployment in the insufficiency of the level of the total request and those which explain the same phenomena by the fall of the profitability of capital ".

The "traditional" theory was corrected by the theory of the fixed balance of price (often called theory of imbalance) suggested by Edmond Malinvaud " who adopts an assumption opposed to the classical theory : that of the rigidity of the prices in short period. Balance is thus not carried out by adjustment of the prices but by adjustment of the quantities : if the offer is larger than the request, certain offers do not find taking and, reciprocally, if the request is surplus, certain requests are not satisfied. These problems make it possible to take into account the existence of an involuntary unemployment ; it appears when, for a standard of wages given on the labour market, the quantity of work offered is higher at the request of work emanating from the employers. The rigidity of the standard of wages prohibits an immediate adjustment ; so a part of the workers willing to accept the standard of current wages will not find employment. During the same period, the disarrangements can be of the same direction or directions opposed on the labour market and the market of the goods. Under these conditions, two types of unemployment can appear :

 In theory a traditional unemployment cannot be prolonged, it changes unemployed keynésien because of the pressure exerted on the request (according to Malinvaud). "  unemployment according to Keynes does not generate any mechanism of rebalances automatic ; it can reproduce indefinitely in the absence of a suitable economic policy ; the durable maintenance of an unemployment keynésien is generating of a potential traditional unemployment which will appear at the time of any starter of recovery ; indeed, the insufficiency of the level of the investment gradually creates a situation in which it will not be profitable any more for the contractors to answer an increase in request.

11) stake of economic policy

" the theoretical debates on the nature of contemporary unemployment are not only refinements of experts. They are in the center of the confrontation between the two strategies of economic policy which are opposed since the bursting of the crisis. According to the diagnosis posed on the principal cause of the growth of unemployment, the solutions will be divergent. 

The economists of liberal inspiration consider that we are basically in the presence of a "traditional " unemployment. The objective is thus the creation of a dynamics profitability-investment-employment... Such strategies inspired the policies of the majority of the industrialized countries in the twenty last years. They encountered an obvious difficulty : the widening of the margins of profit supposes a pressure on the two other components of the national product, the wage bill and the taking away public. In this case, how to hope to see the profits transforming itself into investments at the time when the total request is compressed ? If the investments are carried out, they will be investments of productivity, intended to improve competitiveness vis-a-vis with a stagnant request, and not of the investments of capacity, intended to increase the level of production. They will thus have a destroying and noncreative effect of employment.

The only exit with this contradiction is the widening of the shares which the national productive system occupies on the world market.... But if this result is reached, it should be stressed that it can be it only at the expense of the concurrent economies. If the liberal policies spread, there each country will contribute, by its policy, to depress the total demand on a worldwide scale very for hoping to increase its share of market. It is a play with negative sum, which generates a regressive cumulative cycle. "

With the opposite, interpretation keynésienne of unemployment led to give the priority to the revival of the economic activity thanks to an action on the total request "  It is dynamics request-production-employment.... The national experiments inspired of this logic failed under the pressure of " external pressure " : in the current structures, the revival of the request has inflationary effects and runs up against the existence of branches of industry whose offer is inelastic. To maintain a growth rate higher than that of the concurrent national economies, it is to generate a deficit of the trade balance which calls the return to the austerity ineluctably.

The only exit appears on an international scale ; the harmonization of the national policies of revivals, modulated according to the initial situation of the various economies, should ensure of the compensations in the field of trade. The problem is that the success of these strategies depends on the agreement of the countries which, because they are in a favorable situation from the point of view of inflation and trade balance, would agree to sacrifice this relative advantage on the furnace bridge of the world revival. The experiment shows that these hopes are useless : these countries are carried to be posed in models than to give up, with the profit of the others, the situation which they acquired. 

12) a rate of unemployment of balance

 in front of the incapacity of the economies to restore a balance of full employment, there would be new conditions of regulation of the markets which would generate a certain volume of unemployment necessary to the realization of macroeconomic balance " the currents of inspiration keynésienne and neo-classic two interpretations of the determination of a rate of unemployment of balance propose ".

the 12.1 curve of Philips and NAIRU

"  historically one notes a negative relation between rate of unemployment and growth rate of the money wages. In weak layoff, the employees are in favorable position to ask for wage increases and benefitting from the good economic situation, the employers reflect the rises of wages on their prices. Thus a movement of inflation autoentretenu is engaged. The reasoning is symmetrical for a rate of high unemployment.

An economic system must necessarily make an arbitration between unemployment and inflation. This arbitration defines a standard of nonaccelerating wages of inflation (NAIRU : Not Accelerating Inflation Misses of Unemployment), its level is a function of the characteristics of each economy. An important consequence results from this : a policy of revival has durable positive effects only if the rate of effective unemployment is higher than the NAIRU. In the contrary case, it will cause the acceleration of inflation. When the priority is given to the fight against inflation, of the high rates of unemployment can be durably necessary. "

12.2 The effect of pawl

During one period, an economy by its behavior has an impact which continues during following periods "  For example, a shock of the economic situation which causes a push of unemployment can durably increase the rate of unemployment of balance : degradation of the professional capacities because of is unemployed of long duration, impact of the behavior of the stable holders of employment (and their trade unions). Thus, the three economic recessions which have occurred since 1973 could have had an effect of pawl, depending each time the level of the rate of unemployment of balance in the absence of an active policy aiming at eliminating the durable consequences from them. "

"  the rate of unemployment of balance is not a rate of unemployment inéliminable. The rate of unemployment of balance reflects the characteristics structural of an economy and the choices of economic policy and social which it made in the past. Another policy can be given for objective to transform these characteristics ".

13) a criticism of economism

"  the observation of the national disparities in the level and the evolution of unemployment leads Philippe d' Iribane to blame, rightly, the diagrams of explanation which would rest only on the taking into account of the macroeconomic performances. Only the analysis of social logics and the cultural models appears to him to make possible the comprehension of the reactions different observed vis-a-vis to the same world economic economic situation. It opposes, for example, three contrasted national logics :

This thesis stresses an important fact : unemployment is not the product of an economic determinism. But this analysis explains especially the differences in national reactions vis-a-vis to the disturbances of the labour market, it does not relate to the origins of these disturbances... The economic analysis remains necessary to include/understand the rupture of the model of growth of full employment and the swelling of the unemployment which in resulted.


 What we retain for the continuation of our movement :

 - unemployment is related to the generalization of wage-earning, with a model of production in a founded economic system that on the personal property

- the origin of the crisis since 1973 is related to an accumulation is of capital which in limit profitability, is consumer goods which saturate the markets and cause a drop in the request. The crisis is dependent in 1973 on a high level of inflation which breaks the former virtuous circle which existed since 1945.

- the national reactions founded on values of community or a dream of freedom of enrichment manage to limit unemployment by making so that the applicants for work accept without too much discussing employment suggested

- unemployment accentuates the role of the employers in the social selection and creates a general feeling of injustice

- the economic policies which limit inflation and defend the currencies increase the level of an unemployment of balance : in 1994, unemployed French was thus sacrificed on the furnace bridge of the startup of the euro. In 2003-2004, unemployed Europeans continue to make the expenses of one euro strong and the inflationary anti policy of the ECB (banks central European).

- the liberal economy seems unable to generalize its theories with the whole of the countries under penalty of an explosive deflation.

- the economy keynésienne wants to take for them into account the dissatisfied needs in our companies but runs up against the problem of the profitability of the short-term investments.

- No solution is development to leave the crisis if not a harmonization of the national economic policies world-wide. Vis-a-vis with the negative consequences of its Utopias (nonrealizable share in the operation of a system), our economic system advances a new Utopia.

 In France unemployment is of rather structural nature. In spite of the resumption of the growth, it persists on a high level. It depends closely on the relatively rigid structure of the labour market (important industrial legislation, participation of the two sides of industry).  In the United States, unemployment is of nature of the economic situation. Because of a flexible labour market, the volume of employment is more sensitive to the variations of the economic situation

Years 1980 marked for France, a crisis of social protection : increase in the expenditure due to the rise of unemployment and exclusion, departures massive to the retirement of the baby-boum generation, the wasting due to over-protection vis-a-vis with insufficient resources (reduction in the base of the cotisants)... It appears thus that in France, the social system protection more entirely does not fulfill its role of guarantee of the social risks 

On the site of fileane.com, we do not take part for the implementation of a theory compared to another; we leave our systems of capacities to set up an organization in network. We showed that the system liberal economic capacity and our systems of political powers function only by using the mechanism of exclusion: the principle of authority as the principle of effectiveness function only by excluding those and those which of it are not satisfied. We showed it in Authority-Capacity-Command. Unemployment, for us and even if Freyssinet takes guard to say it also clearly, is the “natural” consequence of the operation of this system of liberal economic capacity. A personal property can grow rich only with the detriment by the other personal properties. That which is enough rich to be able to save can place this saving in the property of means of production which will get to him an additional income thanks to this saving. But to optimize its financial placement, the distribution of the added value created must be done with its advantage. The economic and financial advantages drawn from the use of the technical capital have as consequences the suppression of employment. The fight for survival passes by obtaining a place made safe in an oligopoly on a market and the fight against new entering on this market. In oligopoly, the fixing of the price does not depend any more supply and but of the level of saving available. The consumers must draw from their saving and pay increasingly high prices so that grow the profits of the commercial companies and the dividends of the shareholders. If you do not place your saving in actions to collaborate in this financial domination of the markets, then your incomes will lower years after years: you place yourselves in situation to be excluded (E). All thus contributes for the suppression of employment and nonthe creation of new jobs on this market. Unemployment is the permanent production of the liberal economic system founded on the only personal property. Prohibition to develop the common property only able to enrich exclude them from this economic system (as it is able to enrich whoever wants to adhere to it well) under pretext that the development of the noncommercial economy is able to ruin the commercial economy and the state, can only worsen this major social crisis. The republican pact established after 1860 using the ideas of Emile Durkheim flies thus in glare: the state and its social administrations cannot deal with any more exclude them from this economic system and exclude them from work: the financing of unemployment, the inactivity (and the retirement in particular) and of health becomes a pit because the contributions return more and more insufficiently whereas the expenditure does not cease increasing. The finance public can only juggle between deficits and refunding of the latter at the time of the cycles of growth but if this growth delays, the deficits becomes colossal and prohibits any social progress at the time of the phases of growth. All measurements were taken by the political leaders and none goes to stop this mechanism relentless. The same will apply until the social explosion as long as our companies will not amount again using the complementarity between personal properties - commune - collective. If a system of being able is unable to make live this complementarity, there remains the alternative of the organization in network which it, through the history, was used as framework for the rise of flourishing periods in the life of the people. The citizens included/understood the nature of unemployment and of the exclusion which in our companies strike already more than 20% of the populations and which tomorrow, by reducing to poverty the categories of pensioners, are likely to touch from 30 to 40% of the populations, these citizens do not may find it beneficial any to finance this system economic capacity. They must exert a right of withdrawal to put itself in safety within the framework of other organizations guaranteeing individual enrichment by the complementarity between the three forms of property. They may find it beneficial to work and finance organizations of prevention and insurance against these social risks and to practice solidarity between their organizations. This will directly ruin the leaders of this system of liberal capacity but these richnesses which will not go any more in their cases, will go elsewhere, will be distributed better between the producers of these richnesses which will have used their work within the framework of projects of life than they will have defined in group. To finance the social policies of fight against unemployment is used to avoid the social explosion: all know it. To await that the demographic shock eliminates unemployment to see these welfare expenditures financing then the retirements and health holds of the mental aberration: as long as this liberal economic system founded on the only personal property will function, it will continue with always more excluding from work, to need always more precarious solutions to manage the labor, to reduce always more the wage bill to finance the material investments source of depreciation and cash-flow. No pause will take place neither front neither during nor after the demographic shock. If in our European countries, the mass of inactive becomes too much disturbing, the others which want to be seen guaranteeing a safety by the leaders of these systems of capacities are ready to vote autocratic laws and to accept despotic and dictatorial measurements. The political tendency which accompanies this development by the liberal economic system is extremist: it leads to dictatorial solutions: to set up an absolute capacity which takes a lead in these economic rules and so that these rules function better, the solution is always to practice on a higher level exclusion. Except that for the problem of the retirements, the solution extremist is rather inclusion: to give to work the people of more than 60 years up to 65 even 67 or 70 years, the whole in the commercial economy of course! The politicians supported by some economists careerists who want to still arrive at the capacity in this system, are largely able to vote of such unapplied and inapplicable laws in addition. These policies fight the evil by the evil: exclusion by exclusion, it acts to find the category of population to be excluded in mass to make it possible the system to be able, to recover to a little better function.  It is in that that unemployment is an evil to be eliminated absolutely. For us, to eliminate unemployment is realizable only by stopping the operation of the economic system liberal itself and by replacing it by organizations in networks which use also the common property.

 Economism takes again a secondary place behind the policy, a choice of company making it possible the human beings to find and share their reasons of living and dying, which names also their hope.  It is the raison d'être of this synthesis on unemployment on our Web site. Starting from an explanation of the dysfunctions of our systems of being able, the prospect for the installation of the alternative of the organization in network is updated. We do not speak about reforms of this system of being able but of the installation of the organization in network. The continuation of this page on unemployment is on those presenting the Employment Policies carried out in France, the new definition of work, the installation of the common property within the framework of an organization in network.

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An article of press which illustrates our position: the growth became a myth which the politicians use to handle the citizens.

Growth in question, the World, special supplement, 31/05/07

Herve Kempf

Growth, growth, Economic growth ! Economists, policies, contractors, journalists all, have only this word with the spirit when it is a question of speaking about the solutions to bring to the evils of the company. Often, they even forget that their word fetish is only one means, and pose it in absolute objective, which would be worth by itself.

This obsession, which gathers the right-hand side and the left, is blind with the extent of the ecological crisis: climatic change, but also historical crisis of the biodiversity and chemical contamination of the environment and the beings. It is that the instrument which is used as compass to the persons in charge, the GDP (produced interior gross), is dangerously defective: it does not include the degradation of the biosphere. That means that we contract with regard to this one an always increasing debt. The emergent deregulation of the great planetary ecosystems is the price of this debt. If nothing changes, the annual installments any more will not cease weighing down itself some

The obsession of the growth is also ideological, because it disregards any social context. In fact, the growth does not make in oneself move back unemployment: “Between 1978 and 2005, the GDP in France knew a growth of more than 80%, notices Nicolas Ridoux in the newspaper the Decrease of April. In same time, not only unemployment did not decrease, but it doubled, passing from 5 to 10%.” The International Labor Office and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Developme confirm: in spite of a rise of the world GDP of 5% per annum, unemployment does not decrease. The International Monetary International Monetary Funds and the World Bank also observe that the rise in the GDP does not make move back poverty nor the inequality. Actually, the permanent invocation of the growth is a means of not calling into question the extreme inequality of the incomes and inheritances, while making believe has each one that its standard of living will improve.

There is urgency with D to question the direction and the contents of this modern obsession. A new track is to aim at the reduction of material consumption, i.e. the taking away which we make on the natural resources. A report/ratio of the European Parliament, presented in March by appointed Kartika Tamara Liotar, proposes it: “It is advisable to reduce by four, has the horizon 2030, the consumption of nonrenewable primary resources in the European Union.

Rare are the policies which become aware of the urgency. January 16, in a press conference in Paris, Alain Juppe declared: “It is another growth which it is necessary to invent, which is accompanied by a decrease of the wastings, and we need, in a world strikes by poverty and the inequalities, of a growth less consuming nonrenewable energies and resources, a respectful growth of natural balances, a growth which is accompanied by other methods of consumption and production.” Very beautiful words. That it is necessary to make live, Mister the Minister! 

document : January 2012, collective Roosevelt

In 1933, Albert Einstein explained already that the misuse of the productivity gains of the years 1910 - 1925 (Ford and Taylor) were the fundamental cause of the crisis : “this crisis is singularly different from the preceding crises. Because it depends on the radically new circumstances conditioned by fulgurating progress of the methods of production. For the production of the totality of the consumer goods necessary to the life, only a fraction by work available becomes essential. However, in this kind of liberal economy, this obviousness determines an unemployment inevitably (...).

 This same technical progress which could release the men of most of necessary work to their life is the person in charge of the current catastrophe. ” Einstein before asking Wrote for a “fall of legal working time”.

 Here is the principal explanation of unemployment and the precariousness which has corroded our companies for 30 years, here is thus the fundamental cause of the crisis which has burst for five years: our collective incapacity to manage colossal productivity gains. Because these profits are really considerable: meanwhile, the French economy produces 76% of more with 10% of work in less. However, in same time, thanks to the baby-boom and the work of the women, the working population available passed from 22.3 to 27.2 million people.

 Because of the productivity gains, the economy needs 10% of work in less but, in same time, the number of people available increased by 23%! A gap of 33% thus appeared between the offer and the application for a job.

 Source: collective Roosevelt 2012, proposal 13, January 2012

the operation of the networks citizens of life, once we left this system liberal power, does not produce unemployment through the 3 levels of work: the field of the activities essential to life (DAS1); the field of the realization of works able to raise the standard of living in a sustainable development (DAS2); the field of the political action on the level of the councils of the participative local democracy and on the level of the confederation of the networks citizens of life.



Liberalism who kills freedoms

history of the richnesses

POLICIES OF PARIS  Policies which rest on bets 

Paternalism source of the French crisis of work

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